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社群原指在某些地区或领域内发生联系的一切社会关系,也用来表示一个有相互联结的网络。到了移动互联网时代,由于每个人都成为了一个自媒体可以自由的对外发声,信息通过体育场式社会进行网状传播,不同地区领域内有某些共同特质的群体也可以轻易的集中到一起,这样就形成了互联网社群。

移动互联网时代,微信已经成为人们生活中不可或缺的一部分,睡觉之前做的最后一件事是浏览朋友圈,早上醒来第一件事也是刷微信,甚至朋友之间已经不再交换电话号码而只保留微信号了,微信对于人们来说已经不仅仅是一种通讯工具,更成为了一种生活方式。一旦当微信出现系统问题无法发送消息的时候,整个社会都陷入社群焦虑和恐慌之中。

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微信作为人们连接彼此的一个通道和平台,滋生出许许多多的群体,也就是微信社群。微信现在的五百人群甚至千人大群本身就是由具有某种共同特点的人集合到一起产生的,它本身就可以算做是一个社群,由于信息流通的便捷性,这些社群里的人很容易互相影响并产生强大的舆论传播力。

在微信圈里我们总是经常看到类似的信息流传,像 “爱心转发救救那些可爱的小狗”“苹果6手机不在大陆首发的黑幕是苹果公司看不起中国”,乍看下去骇人听闻,却绝经不起仔细的推敲。然而由于社群的轻信和盲从性,这一类的信息在微信朋友圈中被传播最广泛,传播速度也最快的。

正像法国社会学家古斯塔夫·勒庞在社会学名著《乌合之众》中所说:

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“一个社群总是容易受到暗示,并且非常轻信的。他们总是处于一种期待被人注意的状态中,所以非常容易受到暗示。群体永远漫游在无意识的领地,会随时听命于一切暗示,表现出对理性的影响无动于衷的生物所特有的激情,他们失去了一切批判能力,除了极端轻信外再无别的可能。”

群体具有冲动的和非理性特征。当某个事件成为网络热点时,网民总是能快速形成众口铄金一边倒的舆论场,而无法冷静理智思考。例如2011年在姚晨凌潇肃离婚事件中,只是因为有人说姚晨的丈夫凌潇肃找小三,网民清一色全部都站到姚晨的立场上去口诛笔伐负心郎。而当三年后有人爆料说其实是姚晨当年婚内出轨在先,又有无数人全部都跑去打骂姚晨。而这无数人当中,就有很多是当年去骂凌潇肃如今又跑回来骂姚晨的。

除了各种似是而非的传言,微信朋友圈还大量充斥着类似“首富马云曾经说过的话”“张爱玲说女人不仅要长得漂亮还要活的漂亮”之类的心灵鸡汤。这些文章和语录有很多都是粉丝假托和杜撰出来的赝品。而假托的主角就是网民心中的“男神”和“女神”,在网络社会中,这些像神一样的偶像拥有极大的话语权和影响力。


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微信朋友圈是由相互联结的熟人构成的,是社交弱关系向强关系转化的桥梁。在微信的社群传播中,谣言不再止于智者;人们会选择性失明,不仅对谣言失去鉴别力,而且还会推波助澜。所以说,微信会造就低智商社群。
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微信和微博的区别在于:微信是强关系,微博是弱关系。

“流丸止于瓯臾,流言止于智者。”这句话更适用于微博,微博的多对多与开放性使得一条谣言虽然可以快速的大范围传播,但生命周期往往很短,“智者”们会通过评论及转发的方式快速结果谣言。微博的传播模型、谣言与辟谣信息的相关性也决定了以下效果:谣言造成的影响与辟谣信息传播的效率正相关。

朋友圈都是自己认识的人,对传播者的品行、习惯有基本的了解,而微信群经常是由一个人把他认识的一些朋友拉在一起,以组织者个人为中心,其他成员不一定相互认识,但他们有一个共同的身份——朋友的朋友。

朋友的朋友亦是朋友。在微信转发谣言的人比微博更加不可理喻,原因是他的行为基于朋友间的信任,微信把社交群体命名为朋友圈就是一个很好的注解。三人成虎讲的是弱关系之间的重复传播都可以摧毁强关系的信心,熟人间的以讹传讹则更具病毒传播的力量。

个体一旦进入群体就会屏蔽部分个人属性,取而代之的最重要部分就是集体无意识。

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本能的、感性的情绪极易在群体中传染,而理智的、冷静的情绪则很难起作用。这在微信群中也是如此。微信社群虽然一般都比较小,但由于相互间存在一定的信任基础,所以情绪传染度会更高,谣言也更容易被轻信。谣言在传播的过程中当然也会被“冷静的智者”关注到,但同样是由于“朋友的朋友”这个特殊关系,使他们或者视而不见,或者被胁迫附和,这导致谣言在微信社群中更加畅通。

微博的火爆靠的是几乎每个人都能找到属于他的“意见领袖”,单向关注来获取他希望看到的信息和与自己价值观相同的观点。

而相对封闭的微信只有互粉才能出现在对方的朋友圈中,习惯了在微博中像挑萝卜白菜一样选意见领袖的人们多少会有些不习惯,此时如果社群中出现了一位身份为“朋友的朋友”的活生生的心仪的意见领袖,其影响力会瞬间放大。

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就算社群中没有高质量的意见领袖,习惯了当听众、懒得思考的人们也会矬子里拔将军,“推选”出替他们思考的人。

正如法国社会学家古斯塔夫· 勒庞所言:“一切宗教或政治信条的创立者之所以能够立住脚,皆因为他们成功的激起了群众想入非非的感情,他们使群众在崇拜和服从中,找到了自己的幸福,随时准备为自己的偶像赴汤蹈火。”

互联网的存在让这种“宗教”的创立更加便捷。成为“神”必须经过精心的策划和包装后被推上舞台站在聚光灯下,其一言一行都需要满足一个特殊群体膜拜的心理需求,这一群体对自己崇拜的 “神”五体投地,誓死捍卫自己 “神”的光辉形象,只讲喜欢不讲是非,这一群体就是低智商社会催生出来的“脑残粉”。

勒庞描述的传统社会的信徒和网络社群中的脑残粉并无二致:

第一,偶像总是凌驾于信徒,处于高高在上的地位,这一点有着决定性的作用。

第二,信徒总是盲目服从偶像的命令。

第三,信徒没有能力,也不愿意对偶像规定的信条进行讨论。

第四,信徒有着狂热的愿望,希望把偶像的信条广加传播。

第五,信徒倾向于把不接受它们的任何人视为仇敌。

在移动互联网时代,无论马航飞机失联还是钓鱼岛争端都无法引起网民的持续关注,吸引网民眼球的是娱乐新闻,互联网时代造神更加容易,新神偶像层出不穷,娱乐正在改变中国。

微信作为一个成功的移动互联网产品已基本融入了我们的生活工作,快餐式的信息获取方式,使得人们越来越懒得思考,也没有时间思考。

移动互联时代,社交方式不断出新,找到与自己“志同道合”的人将会越来越容易。未来将会将会经历一个社群爆发的时期——机构、团体甚至公司都会向虚拟化倾斜。

今年Facebook的活跃用户已经超过10亿,而微信的用户也已超过6个亿,其中有一亿是海外用户。按照Facebook创始人马克.扎克伯格的说法:如果Facebook是一个国家,Facebook共和国的人口数将是世界上第二个人口最多的国家。这个国家所有公民都乐于把他的个人信息和私生活完全公开。

如何在信息爆炸的社会中辨别真伪、独立思考,不被低智商社群淹没,是对互联网移民最大的考验。